Who is the real blockchain, public chain, private chain and alliance chain?
Since the birth of blockchain in 2008, people have created more and more blockchains. Taking Bitcoin as an example, as long as users download the Bitcoin wallet from Bitcoin's official website, they can perform the transfer operation, and can also view all previous transaction records in the wallet, so even if they join the Bitcoin blockchain network. Bitcoin does not set any barriers to entry, and anyone located around the world can join and exit at will.
Therefore, the degree of decentralization of Bitcoin is very high. A blockchain network like Bitcoin is known as a public chain because it is open and transparent to everyone.
In the blockchain, the public chain is the most open and the most decentralized. In the public chain, data storage, update, maintenance, and operation no longer depend on a centralized server, but on each network node, which means that the data on the public chain is made from the global Internet Thousands of network nodes jointly record and maintain, no one can tamper with the data without authorization.
Public chains rely on the existence of incentive mechanisms. Why do you say that? This is because the data on the public chain is jointly maintained by all network nodes. If these nodes can actively participate in the maintenance of the system, some rewards must be set to stimulate the nodes to participate in the construction of the public chain, so as to ensure The stability and non-tampering of the public chain system.
The public chain is very much like water and electricity in our daily life. As long as you install a water meter and an electricity meter at home and pay the fee, you can use water and electricity.
In recent years, competition in public chains has gradually become fierce. Bitcoin was born in 2008, Ethereum was born in 2013, and EOS was born in 2017.
However, the public chain also has some problems:
First of all, the entire public chain data is open, this situation does not apply to all industries. Imagine how the banking, government, and securities industries could make internal data public?
The second point is also the issue that has always been concerned, that is, the speed of processing transactions is too slow. This problem exists in both Bitcoin and Ethereum. The public chain requires the participation of nodes across the network. There are too many participating nodes. Although it is now decentralized, the efficiency is very low, which seriously affects the speed of processing transactions. The transaction processing speed of the Bitcoin blockchain is 7 transactions per second. Ethereum can be increased to dozens of transactions. EOS is faster than the previous two, and it can reach a transaction speed of thousands of transactions per second.
The public chain is also very similar to the Olympic Forest Park. No one needs to buy a ticket to walk or run in the park. Depending on the degree of openness, there are other types of gardens, such as private gardens and royal gardens. The residence of the French president is the Elysee Palace, and only the president can visit on weekdays. Only on the French National Day and European Heritage Day, the Elysee Palace is open to the public.
If a bank wants to use the blockchain ledger to keep accounts, it certainly does not want the ledger information to be seen by anyone, so only the company's financial staff can use it. A blockchain like this is called a private chain. Just like the emperor's back garden, not everyone can visit it casually.
Private chain refers to the blockchain whose authority is controlled by an organization and institution, and the qualification of participating nodes will be strictly restricted.
Because the private chain has such strict restrictions, its decentralization degree is the lowest. Because it is private and does not require a complex consensus mechanism to determine who will keep the account, private chain technology is very similar to the previous database technology, so both small and large companies will choose more when selecting technologies Mature old technology. The Bank of England and the Bank of Canada have considered developing a national-level blockchain system, but the project has been delayed. However, the giant companies have not stopped in the blockchain field. Forbes magazine recently announced the top 50 global blockchains in 2019. In the list, they are basically familiar international giants, including many international banks and insurance giants. . The most striking thing is MasterCard. This company does not use any existing blockchain technology on the market, but is preparing to build its own blockchain platform from scratch. It can be said that it is full of confidence.
In addition, frequent inter-bank transfers will be made between banks. In order to facilitate inter-bank transactions, my country UnionPay has been established. Banks in China can trade and clear through UnionPay. If each bank forming the alliance shares a blockchain platform, each can view the ledger and also have the right to keep accounts, but institutions outside the alliance do not have these rights. Blockchains that are shared only among allies are called alliance chains.
In September 2015, American fintech company R3CEV teamed up with 42 world-renowned banks including Barclays, Credit Suisse, Morgan Stanley, Goldman Sachs and HSBC to form a blockchain alliance-R3 blockchain alliance, research And develop the application of blockchain technology in the financial industry. This is the first appearance of the alliance chain.
Compared with public chains and private chains, alliance chains are currently the most popular. Because the alliance chain does not consume a lot of resources, it solves the problem of slow processing of public chain transactions, and allows new members to join through open authentication, which can continue to grow the team.
Among the many alliance chain projects, the super ledger project led by IBM is a must. According to IBM, there are hundreds of landing projects, including large customers such as Maersk, Wal-Mart, Lenovo, and Postal Savings Bank. Coupled with the early launch and the most mature technical framework, IBM’s vigorous promotion is also indispensable. The Super Ledger project has also developed some small and convenient cases. As long as you have a little understanding of computer knowledge, you can build a blockchain yourself The network can also achieve simple transaction functions, satisfying many people's curiosity about the blockchain. According to statistics, in all alliance chain projects, projects based on super ledger accounts for half of the country.
The world composed of public chain, private chain and alliance chain is like a public garden next to a private garden, and then next to a membership garden. There is a high wall between the gardens. If you can only turn around in one garden, even if the garden has the best view, there will be a day to watch. If you want to go to other gardens, it is definitely not possible to turn the wall. Therefore, a company has developed a technology called "side chain".
Generally speaking, the concept of side chain is relative to the main chain. As long as the blockchain meets the "side chain protocol", it can become a side chain. For example, if you want to use Bitcoin in other blockchain systems, you can establish a sidechain protocol between them. After the protocol is established, you can use Bitcoin freely in the new platform. The information is processed on the side link, so even if a threat occurs, it will not affect the security of the main chain.
With the continuous development of the blockchain, more new scenes will be integrated, and the form of the blockchain will become more and more diverse.
TIO co-creates one, insists on researching blockchain technology, focusing on the development of blockchain, and accumulating power to help the implementation of blockchain applications. Dapp related applications are welcome to be discussed on WeChat: furowu
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